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15 years of the adoption of the Constitution - 1991

15 years of the adoption of the Constitution - 1991

7/12/2006 1:38:30 PM

On July 12 1991 the Seventh Grand National Assembly voted the Constitution of the Republic of Bulgaria. The Constitution states that Bulgaria is a republic with parliamentary government and it is a democratic and social state with rule of law. It enshrines the principles of separation of powers, the rights and freedoms of citizens, and the supremacy of the Constitution.
 
The National Assembly elected for a four-year term and consisting of 240 Members of Parliament exercises the legislative power and parliamentary oversight. Unlike the preceding fundamental laws, the July 1991 Constitution states that the National Assembly is a standing body. The first Bulgarian Constitution is the Tarnovo one, adopted by Bulgaria’s Constituent Assembly on April 16 1879.
 
The Assembly adopted the principle of separation of powers into executive, legislative and judiciary. The Constitution protected civil freedoms, the inviolability of ownership, the freedom of individuals, the equality before law, the right to association, the abolition of class-related rights and slavery, etc. The Tarnovo Constitution proclaimed the Principality of Bulgaria for a constitution monarchy with parliamentary government and provided for strict separation of powers.
 
The Tarnovo Constitution remained in use until 4 December 1947, when it was replaced by the Constitution of the People's Republic of Bulgaria. It stated that Bulgaria is a People’s Republic having representative government, established and consolidated in result of the heroic fights of the Bulgarian people against the monarch-fascist dictatorship and the victorious people’s uprising from September 9 1944. As of 1971 until July 12 1991 in force was the Constitution saying that the People’s Republic of Bulgaria is a socialist state of the working people from the town and the village headed by the Working Class.
 
In the beginning of the democratic processes started after November 1989 and the decisions of the National Round Table – April 1990, the National Assembly adopted amendments in the 1971 Constitution which was in force until the adoption of the currently active Constitution.
 
By June 2006 three amendments are made in the 1991 Constitution related to the immunities, the immovability and the mandate of the magistrates (September 2003); the revocation of the ban for foreigners to buy land related to the Bulgarian’s entering the EU (February 2005); and the position of the prosecutors and the examining magistrates in the legislative power, the immunities of judges, examining magistrates, prosecutors and deputies, and the municipalities’ power when forming the taxes (March 2006).

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